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Norman Chigier

Professor Emeritus, Mechanical Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA  15213-3890

Dr. Norman Chigier was the William J. Brown Chaired Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University.  At the University of Cambridge, England, he was awarded the M.A. degree in 1960 and the Ph.D. degree in 1961.  In 1977, Cambridge University awarded him the special distinguished degree of Doctor of Science, based upon international recognition and publication of books and papers in scientific journals.  He is author of three books: Combustion Aerodynamics (1972) (translated into Japanese and Chinese); Energy, Combustion and Environment (1981) (translated into Chinese); and Combustion Measurements (1991).  He has published 300 papers in scientific journals and conference proceedings, including an article in Scientific American (1974).  He has received distinguished awards for papers of excellence from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1965); Institute of Fuel, (1968) and (1975); and the International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (1988).  In 1974, he founded the international review journal, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science.  He has been the sole editor for over 35 years.  He is editor of the Hemisphere International Book Series on Combustion.

       Dr. Chigier was one of the founding members of the International Institute of Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ILASS).  In ILASS, he was President of the International Council, Chairman of the Board of Directors of ILASS-Americas, and founding editor of the archival research journal, Atomization and Sprays.  He has presented Plenary and Keynote Lectures at the following conferences: International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1976); American Chemical Society, San Francisco (1976); American Society of Mechanical Engineers; (1981, 1990, 1991, and 1993); International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (1991); and the 2nd International Symposium on Energy and Environment Towards the Year 2000 (1993).  He was on the Advisory Board of the University of Rouen, France and on the Advisory Board of the Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.  He has held appointments at the University of Cambridge, England (1956-60); International Flame Research Foundation, Netherlands (1961-63); Technion, Israel (1964-66); Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA (1976); Stanford University (1977); Ecole Centrale, Lyon, France (1977-78); University of California, San Diego (1979); University of Sheffield, England (1966-81); and Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (1981-present).  He is a fellow or member of six professional societies.  He has been a consultant to 20 industrial companies including: General Motors, Sandia Laboratories, Chevron, Solar, Batelle, ELF, Brown Boveri, Exxon, United Technologies Research Center, Parker Hannifin, Shell, Aerodyne, Advanced Fuel Research, CONSAD, Energy Systems Associates, Scott Paper, Dayton Power and Light, and Trimex.  Dr. Chigier is president of Combustion Research, which he uses for consulting and publishing.

       Dr. Chigier has engaged in fundamental and applied research on Combustion, Atomization and Sprays since 1960.  He established the Combustion and Spray Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University in 1981.  Research contracts from the U.S. government include: National Science Foundation, NASA Lewis Research Center, NASA Marshall Space Center, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Research Center (DOE), Department of Energy - Basic Energy Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Army Research Office.  Industrial contracts include, Exxon Research and Development, Parker Hannifin Aerospace, Westinghouse Research and Development, Johnson Wax and Toyota Motor Corporation - Japan.  The Spray Laboratories are equipped with several spray chambers for testing fluids with different viscosities, surface tension and density.  Specially designed spray chambers make provision for handling of slurries, polymers, sludge, and extraction of toxic and noxious fumes and disposal of hazardous wastes.  A high pressure, high temperature spray chamber, with sapphire transparent windows, allows study of diesel and gas turbine liquid fuel spray combustion.  The Spray Laboratories at Carnegie Mellon University were recognized as one of the best equipped laboratories in the world for atomization and spray instrumentation.  Several of the experimental and diagnostic techniques were developed in the CMU laboratories under the direction of Dr. Chigier.  In the field of visualization, special high speed, high magnification, micro-photography, cinematography, TV and CCD camera techniques are used for spray analyses and characterization.  A multiple flash system generates high intensity spark flashes with 200 nano second duration, providing repeated flashes at 1 microsecond intervals.  Time sequence, detailed measurements, are made of liquid emerging from a 250 micron, high pressure liquid fuel diesel injector at exit velocities of 300 meters per second.  Automatic digital image analysis allows recording of images on a CCD camera with computer analysis of particle shape, geometry, size and velocity.  The Fraunhofer laser diffraction particle analyzer is used as a line-of-sight instrument to measure ensemble averages of particles in a laser light beam.  The phase Doppler particle analyzer (Aerometrics) is the most sophisticated laser diagnostic instrument that exists for spray characterization.  Individual particles passing through a measurement volume in the spray formed by two crossed laser beams, are simultaneously analyzed for particle size and velocity.  Measurement times are approximately 1 micro second so that, in 1 second, sufficient information is accumulated to generate and print out size distribution, velocity distribution, size-velocity correlation, number density and liquid flux.


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